Glossary

Albumin: A protein found in the blood that is mostly produced by the liver. Decreases in albumin levels can be an indication of advanced liver disease.

Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT): A protein found in high concentrations in the liver.Elevated levels of ALT in the blood can be an indication of toxic hepatitis. The AST/ALT ratio is sometimes used in the differential diagnosis of liver disease (see AST below).

Angiogram: A medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside of blood vessels and organs of the body.

Artery: Any blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body.

Ascites: The accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.

Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST): A protein found in high concentrations in the liver.

Bilirubin: The major pigment of bile that is removed from the blood by the liver. When the liveris unable to remove bilirubin from the blood, bilirubin levels can rise and may indicate liver disease.

Catheter: A flexible, hollow tube used to deliver or withdraw fluids from the body.

Cirrhosis: A condition whereby the liver is scarred by continual damage and repair, as a result of damage through disease or conditions such as hepatitis or chronic alcohol abuse.

Coil: A small, twisted wire that is inserted into a vessel to block blood flow.

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): A molecule found in a cell that carries genetic information.

Downstaging: The process of treating tumors to reduce the tumor size/number, with the goal of increasing a patient's eligibility for surgery or liver transplant.

Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh supplying blood to the groin and lower extremities.

Fluoroscopy: An x-ray procedure that takes continuous pictures to evaluate moving structures within the body.

Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): A type of liver cancer which has started in the liver.

Infiltrative Tumor: A type of tumor that has spread from a single isolated location into the surrounding healthy tissue.

Irinotecan: A drug used to treat cancer.

Metastasis: A tumour that results from the spread of tumor cells in one type of tissue to another.

Micrometer (μm): A unit of measure used to determine the length of an object. One micrometer is equal to one millionth of a meter (approximately 1/25000 of an inch).

Oxaliplatin: A drug used to treat cancer.

Portal Vein Thrombosis (PVT): A blockage by a blood clot, of the portal vein, which brings blood to the liver.

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA): A molecule that transfers information essential for protein synthesis from DNA.

Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT): The injection of micron-sized radioactive microspheres into the artery that supplies blood to the liver tumor. Also referred to as transarterial radioembolization (TARE).

Transarterial Radioembolization (TARE): The injection of micron-sized radioactive microspheres into the artery supplying blood to the liver tumor. Also referred to as selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT).

TheraSphere®: A liver cancer treatment that is comprised of microscopic glass spheres containing radioactive yttrium-90.

TheraSphere® Package Insert & Instructions for Use: Documents that describe the TheraSphere® product, its indication, contraindications, precautions/warnings, adverse events and other important product-related information.

Upper Limit of Normal (ULN): The maximum value of a test result above which the result is considered abnormal.

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF): a molecule that promotes blood vessel growth. Blood vessel growth is necessary for cancer metastasis.

Yttrium-90 (90Y): A radioactive element that emits energy in the form of beta radiation as it breaks down into its stable form, zirconium-90.

Zirconium-90 (90Zr): A stable element that is produced from the breakdown of yttrium-90.